Saturday, February 16, 2013

Google Monopoly Exposed - Don't You Think That You Use Too Much Google Products - Google Is A Closed Source Artificial Intelligence Machine - The New Machine Replacing Google Is Free And Open Source - Eric Schmidt Sells 40 Percent Stake In Google

linux revolution, open source corporations, non profit companies, everything is free
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Google Inc. is an American multinational corporation that provides Internet-related products and services, including internet search, cloud computing, software and advertising technologies.[6] Advertising revenues from AdWords generate almost all of the company's profits.[7][8]

The company was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while both attended Stanford University. Together, Brin and Page own about 16 percent of the company's stake. Google was first incorporated as a privately held company on September 4, 1998, and its initial public offering followed on August 19, 2004. The company's mission statement from the outset was "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful"[9] and the company's unofficial slogan is "Don't be evil".[10][11] In 2006, the company moved to its current headquarters in Mountain View, California.

Rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products, acquisitions, and partnerships beyond the company's core web search engine. The company offers online productivity software including email, an office suite, and social networking. Google's products extend to the desktop as well, with applications for web browsing, organizing and editing photos, and instant messaging. Google leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, as well as the Google Chrome OS browser-only operating system,[12] found on specialized netbooks called Chromebooks. Google has increasingly become a hardware company with its partnerships with major electronics manufacturers on its high-end Nexus series of devices and its acquisition of Motorola Mobility in May 2012,[13] as well as the construction of fiber-optic infrastructure in Kansas City as part of the Google Fiber broadband Internet service project.[14]

Google has been estimated to run over one million servers in data centers around the world,[15] and process over one billion search requests[16] and about twenty-four petabytes of user-generated data every day.[17][18][19][20]

As of December 2012, Alexa listed the main U.S.-focused site as the Internet's most visited website and numerous international Google sites as being in the top hundred, as well as several other Google-owned sites such as YouTube and Blogger.[21] Google also ranks number two in the BrandZ brand equity database.[22] The dominant market position of Google's services has led to criticism of the company over issues including privacy, copyright, and censorship.[23][24]



Google's homepage in 1998
Google's original homepage had a simple design, since its founders were not experienced in HTML, the language for designing web pages.[25]
Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in California.[26]

While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships between websites.[27] They called this new technology PageRank, where a website's relevance was determined by the number of pages, and the importance of those pages, that linked back to the original site.[28][29]

A small search engine called "RankDex" from IDD Information Services designed by Robin Li was, since 1996, already exploring a similar strategy for site-scoring and page ranking.[30] The technology in RankDex would be patented[31] and used later when Li founded Baidu in China.[32][33]

Page and Brin originally nicknamed their new search engine "BackRub", because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site.[34][35][36]

Eventually, they changed the name to Google, originating from a misspelling of the word "googol",[37][38] the number one followed by one hundred zeros, which was picked to signify that the search engine wants to provide large quantities of information for people.[39] Originally, Google ran under the Stanford University website, with the domains and[40][41]

The domain name for Google was registered on September 15, 1997,[42] and the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998. It was based in a friend's (Susan Wojcicki[26]) garage in Menlo Park, California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee.[26][43][44]
In May 2011, the number of monthly unique visitors to Google surpassed 1 billion for the first time, an 8.4 percent increase from May 2010 (931 million).[45]

In January of 2013, Google announced it had earned $50 billion in annual revenue for the year of 2012. This marked the first time Google had reached this feat, topping their 2011 total of $38 billion. [46]

Financing and initial public offering

Google's first servers, showing lots of exposed wiring and circuit boards
Google's first production server. Google's production servers continue to be built with inexpensive hardware.[47]
The first funding for Google was an August 1998 contribution of US$100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems, given before Google was even incorporated.[48] Early in 1999, while still graduate students, Brin and Page decided that the search engine they had developed was taking up too much of their time from academic pursuits. They went to Excite CEO George Bell and offered to sell it to him for $1 million. He rejected the offer, and later criticized Vinod Khosla, one of Excite's venture capitalists, after he had negotiated Brin and Page down to $750,000. On June 7, 1999, a $25 million round of funding was announced,[49] with major investors including the venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Sequoia Capital.[48]
Google's initial public offering (IPO) took place five years later on August 19, 2004. At that time Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Eric Schmidt agreed to work together at Google for 20 years, until the year 2024.[50] The company offered 19,605,052 shares at a price of $85 per share.[51][52] Shares were sold in a unique online auction format using a system built by Morgan Stanley and Credit Suisse, underwriters for the deal.[53][54] The sale of $1.67 billion gave Google a market capitalization of more than $23 billion.[55] The vast majority of the 271 million shares remained under the control of Google, and many Google employees became instant paper millionaires. Yahoo!, a competitor of Google, also benefited because it owned 8.4 million shares of Google before the IPO took place.[56]
Some people speculated that Google's IPO would inevitably lead to changes in company culture. Reasons ranged from shareholder pressure for employee benefit reductions to the fact that many company executives would become instant paper millionaires.[57] As a reply to this concern, co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page promised in a report to potential investors that the IPO would not change the company's culture.[58] In 2005, however, articles in The New York Times and other sources began suggesting that Google had lost its anti-corporate, no evil philosophy.[59][60][61] In an effort to maintain the company's unique culture, Google designated a Chief Culture Officer, who also serves as the Director of Human Resources. The purpose of the Chief Culture Officer is to develop and maintain the culture and work on ways to keep true to the core values that the company was founded on: a flat organization with a collaborative environment.[62] Google has also faced allegations of sexism and ageism from former employees.[63][64]
The stock's performance after the IPO went well, with shares hitting $700 for the first time on October 31, 2007,[65] primarily because of strong sales and earnings in the online advertising market.[66] The surge in stock price was fueled mainly by individual investors, as opposed to large institutional investors and mutual funds.[66] The company is now listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the ticker symbol GOOG and under the Frankfurt Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol GGQ1.


In March 1999, the company moved its offices to Palo Alto, California, home to several other noted Silicon Valley technology startups.[67] The next year, against Page and Brin's initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine,[68] Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords.[26] In order to maintain an uncluttered page design and increase speed, advertisements were solely text-based. Keywords were sold based on a combination of price bids and click-throughs, with bidding starting at five cents per click.[26] This model of selling keyword advertising was first pioneered by, an Idealab spin-off created by Bill Gross.[69][70] When the company changed names to Overture Services, it sued Google over alleged infringements of the company's pay-per-click and bidding patents. Overture Services would later be bought by Yahoo! and renamed Yahoo! Search Marketing. The case was then settled out of court, with Google agreeing to issue shares of common stock to Yahoo! in exchange for a perpetual license.[71]
During this time, Google was granted a patent describing its PageRank mechanism.[72] The patent was officially assigned to Stanford University and lists Lawrence Page as the inventor. In 2003, after outgrowing two other locations, the company leased its current office complex from Silicon Graphics at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California.[73] The complex has since come to be known as the Googleplex, a play on the word googolplex, the number one followed by a googol zeroes. The Googleplex interiors were designed by Clive Wilkinson Architects. Three years later, Google would buy the property from SGI for $319 million.[74] By that time, the name "Google" had found its way into everyday language, causing the verb "google" to be added to the Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary, denoted as "to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet."[75][76]

Acquisitions and partnerships

Larry Page and Sergey Brin in 2003
Since 2001, Google has acquired many companies, mainly focusing on small venture capital companies. In 2004, Google acquired Keyhole, Inc.[77] The start-up company developed a product called Earth Viewer that gave a three-dimensional view of the Earth. Google renamed the service to Google Earth in 2005. Two years later, Google bought the online video site YouTube for $1.65 billion in stock.[78] On April 13, 2007, Google reached an agreement to acquire DoubleClick for $3.1 billion, giving Google valuable relationships that DoubleClick had with Web publishers and advertising agencies.[79] Later that same year, Google purchased GrandCentral for $50 million.[80] The site would later be changed over to Google Voice. On August 5, 2009, Google bought out its first public company, purchasing video software maker On2 Technologies for $106.5 million.[81] Google also acquired Aardvark, a social network search engine, for $50 million, and commented on its internal blog, "we're looking forward to collaborating to see where we can take it".[82] In April 2010, Google announced it had acquired a hardware startup, Agnilux.[83]
In addition to the many companies Google has purchased, the company has partnered with other organizations for everything from research to advertising. In 2005, Google partnered with NASA Ames Research Center to build 1,000,000 square feet (93,000 m2) of offices.[84] The offices would be used for research projects involving large-scale data management, nanotechnology, distributed computing, and the entrepreneurial space industry. Google entered into a partnership with Sun Microsystems in October 2005 to help share and distribute each other's technologies.[85] The company also partnered with AOL of Time Warner,[86] to enhance each other's video search services. Google's 2005 partnerships also included financing the new .mobi top-level domain for mobile devices, along with other companies including Microsoft, Nokia, and Ericsson.[87] Google would later launch "AdSense for Mobile", taking advantage of the emerging mobile advertising market.[88] Increasing its advertising reach even further, Google and Fox Interactive Media of News Corporation entered into a $900 million agreement to provide search and advertising on (at the time) popular social networking site MySpace.[89]

In October 2006, Google announced that it had acquired the video-sharing site YouTube for US$1.65 billion in Google stock, and the deal was finalized on November 13, 2006.[90] Google does not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in 2007 were noted as "not material" in a regulatory filing.[91] In June 2008, a Forbes magazine article projected the 2008 YouTube revenue at US$200 million, noting progress in advertising sales.[92] In 2007, Google began sponsoring NORAD Tracks Santa, a service that follows Santa Claus' progress on Christmas Eve,[93] using Google Earth to "track Santa" in 3-D for the first time,[94] and displacing former sponsor AOL. Google-owned YouTube gave NORAD Tracks Santa its own channel.[95]

In 2008, Google developed a partnership with GeoEye to launch a satellite providing Google with high-resolution (0.41 m monochrome, 1.65 m color) imagery for Google Earth. The satellite was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on September 6, 2008.[96] Google also announced in 2008 that it was hosting an archive of Life Magazine's photographs as part of its latest partnership. Some of the images in the archive were never published in the magazine.[97] The photos were watermarked and originally had copyright notices posted on all photos, regardless of public domain status.[98]

In 2010, Google Energy made its first investment in a renewable energy project, putting $38.8 million into two wind farms in North Dakota. The company announced the two locations will generate 169.5 megawatts of power, or enough to supply 55,000 homes. The farms, which were developed by NextEra Energy Resources, will reduce fossil fuel use in the region and return profits. NextEra Energy Resources sold Google a twenty percent stake in the project to get funding for its development.[99] Also in 2010, Google purchased Global IP Solutions, a Norway-based company that provides web-based teleconferencing and other related services. This acquisition will enable Google to add telephone-style services to its list of products.[100] On May 27, 2010, Google announced it had also closed the acquisition of the mobile ad network AdMob. This purchase occurred days after the Federal Trade Commission closed its investigation into the purchase.[101] Google acquired the company for an undisclosed amount.[102] In July 2010, Google signed an agreement with an Iowa wind farm to buy 114 megawatts of energy for 20 years.[103]

On April 4, 2011, The Globe and Mail reported that Google bid $900 million for six thousand Nortel Networks patents.[104]

On August 15, 2011, Google made its largest-ever acquisition to date when announced that it would acquire Motorola Mobility for $12.5 billion[105][106] subject to approval from regulators in the United States and Europe. In a post on Google's blog, Google Chief Executive and co-founder Larry Page revealed that Google's acquisition of Motorola Mobility is a strategic move to strengthen Google's patent portfolio. The company's Android operating system has come under fire in an industry-wide patent battle, as Apple and Microsoft have taken to court Android device makers such as HTC, Samsung and Motorola.[107] The merger was completed on the May 22, 2012, after the approval of People's Republic of China.[108]
This purchase was made in part to help Google gain Motorola's considerable patent portfolio on mobile phones and wireless technologies to help protect it in its ongoing patent disputes with other companies,[109] mainly Apple and Microsoft[107] and to allow it to continue to freely offer Android.[110] After the acquisition closed, Google began to restructure the Motorola business to fit Google's strategy. On August 13, 2012, Google announced plans to layoff 4000 Motorola Mobility employees. [111] On December 10, 2012, Google sold the manufacturing operations of Motorola Mobility to Flextronics for $75 Million. [112] As a part of the agreement, Flextronics will manufacture undisclosed Android and other mobile devices [113] On December 19, 2012, Google sold the Motorola Home business division of Motorola Mobility to Arris Group for $2.35 billion in a cash-and-stock transaction. As a part of this deal, Google acquired a 15.7% stake in Arris Group valued at $300Million.[114]
On June 5, 2012 Google announced it acquired Quickoffice, a company widely known for their mobile productivity suite for both iOS and Android. Google plans to integrate Quickoffice's technology into its own product suite.[115]
On February 6, 2013 Google announced it has acquired Channel Intelligence for $125 million. Channel Intelligence, a technology company that helps customers buy products online, is active globally in 31 different countries and works with over 850 retailers. Google will use this technology to enhance it's ecommerce business. [116]

Google data centers

Google Inc. currently owns and operates 6 data centers across the U.S., plus one in Finland and another in Belgium. On September 28, 2011 the company has announced to build three data centers at a cost of more than $200 million in Asia (Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan) and has already purchased the land for them. Google said they will be operational in one to two years.[117]

Products and services


In 2011, 96% of Google's revenue was derived from its advertising programs.[118] For the 2006 fiscal year, the company reported $10.492 billion in total advertising revenues and only $112 million in licensing and other revenues.[119] Google has implemented various innovations in the online advertising market that helped make it one of the biggest brokers in the market. Using technology from the company DoubleClick, Google can determine user interests and target advertisements so they are relevant to their context and the user that is viewing them.[120][121] Google Analytics allows website owners to track where and how people use their website, for example by examining click rates for all the links on a page.[122] Google advertisements can be placed on third-party websites in a two-part program. Google's AdWords allows advertisers to display their advertisements in the Google content network, through either a cost-per-click or cost-per-view scheme. The sister service, Google AdSense, allows website owners to display these advertisements on their website, and earn money every time ads are clicked.[123]
One of the disadvantages and criticisms of this program is Google's inability to combat click fraud, when a person or automated script "clicks" on advertisements without being interested in the product, which causes that advertiser to pay money to Google unduly. Industry reports in 2006 claim that approximately 14 to 20 percent of clicks were in fact fraudulent or invalid.[124] Furthermore, there has been controversy over Google's "search within a search", where a secondary search box enables the user to find what they are looking for within a particular website. It was soon reported that when performing a search within a search for a specific company, advertisements from competing and rival companies often showed up along with those results, drawing users away from the site they were originally searching.[125]
Another complaint against Google's advertising is its censorship of advertisers, though many cases concern compliance with the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. For example, in February 2003, Google stopped showing the advertisements of Oceana, a non-profit organization protesting a major cruise ship's sewage treatment practices. Google cited its editorial policy at the time, stating "Google does not accept advertising if the ad or site advocates against other individuals, groups, or organizations."[126] The policy was later changed.[127] In June 2008, Google reached an advertising agreement with Yahoo!, which would have allowed Yahoo! to feature Google advertisements on its web pages. The alliance between the two companies was never completely realized due to antitrust concerns by the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result, Google pulled out of the deal in November 2008.[128][129]
In an attempt to advertise its own products, Google launched a website called Demo Slam, developed to demonstrate technology demos of Google Products.[130] Each week, two teams compete at putting Google's technology into new contexts. Search Engine Journal said Demo Slam is "a place where creative and tech-savvy people can create videos to help the rest of the world understand all the newest and greatest technology out there."[131]

Search engine

On February 14, 2012, Google updated its homepage with a minor twist. There are no red lines above the options in the black bar, and there is a tab space before the "+You". The sign-in button has also changed, it is no longer in the black bar, instead under it as a button.
Google Search, a web search engine, is the company's most popular service. According to market research published by comScore in November 2009, Google is the dominant search engine in the United States market, with a market share of 65.6%.[132] Google indexes billions[133] of web pages, so that users can search for the information they desire, through the use of keywords and operators.
Despite its popularity, it has received criticism from a number of organizations. In 2003, The New York Times complained about Google's indexing, claiming that Google's caching of content on its site infringed its copyright for the content.[134] In this case, the United States District Court of Nevada ruled in favor of Google in Field v. Google and Parker v. Google.[135][136] Furthermore, the publication 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has compiled a list of words that the web giant's new instant search feature will not search.[137] Google Watch has also criticized Google's PageRank algorithms, saying that they discriminate against new websites and favor established sites,[138] and has made allegations about connections between Google and the NSA and the CIA.[139] Despite criticism, the basic search engine has spread to specific services as well, including an image search engine, the Google News search site, Google Maps, and more. In early 2006, the company launched Google Video, which allowed users to upload, search, and watch videos from the Internet.[140] In 2009, however, uploads to Google Video were discontinued so that Google could focus more on the search aspect of the service.[141] The company even developed Google Desktop, a desktop search application used to search for files local to one's computer (discontinued in 2011). Google's most recent development in search is its partnership with the United States Patent and Trademark Office to create Google Patents, which enables free access to information about patents and trademarks.

One of the more controversial search services Google hosts is Google Books. The company began scanning books and uploading limited previews, and full books where allowed, into its new book search engine. The Authors Guild, a group that represents 8,000 U.S. authors, filed a class action suit in a New York City federal court against Google in 2005 over this new service. Google replied that it is in compliance with all existing and historical applications of copyright laws regarding books.[142] Google eventually reached a revised settlement in 2009 to limit its scans to books from the U.S., the UK, Australia and Canada.[143] Furthermore, the Paris Civil Court ruled against Google in late 2009, asking it to remove the works of La Martinière (Éditions du Seuil) from its database.[144] In competition with, Google plans to sell digital versions of new books.[145]

On July 21, 2010, in response to newcomer Bing, Google updated its image search to display a streaming sequence of thumbnails that enlarge when pointed at. Though web searches still appear in a batch per page format, on July 23, 2010, dictionary definitions for certain English words began appearing above the linked results for web searches.[146] Google's algorithm was changed in March 2011, giving more weight to high-quality content[147] possibly by the use of n-grams to remove spun content.[148]

Productivity tools

In addition to its standard web search services, Google has released over the years a number of online productivity tools. Gmail, a free webmail service provided by Google, was launched as an invitation-only beta program on April 1, 2004,[149] and became available to the general public on February 7, 2007.[150] The service was upgraded from beta status on July 7, 2009,[151] at which time it had 146 million users monthly.[152] The service would be the first online email service with one gigabyte of storage, and the first to keep emails from the same conversation together in one thread, similar to an Internet forum.[149] The service currently offers over 7600 MB of free storage with additional storage ranging from 20 GB to 16 TB available for US$0.25 per 1 GB per year.[153] Furthermore, software developers know Gmail for its pioneering use of AJAX, a programming technique that allows web pages to be interactive without refreshing the browser.[154] One criticism of Gmail has been the potential for data disclosure, a risk associated with many online web applications. Steve Ballmer (Microsoft's CEO),[155] Liz Figueroa,[156] Mark Rasch,[157] and the editors of Google Watch[158] believe the processing of email message content goes beyond proper use, but Google claims that mail sent to or from Gmail is never read by a human being beyond the account holder, and is only used to improve relevance of advertisements.[159]

Google Docs, another part of Google's productivity suite, allows users to create, edit, and collaborate on documents in an online environment, not dissimilar to Microsoft Word. The service was originally called Writely, but was obtained by Google on March 9, 2006, where it was released as an invitation-only preview.[160] On June 6 after the acquisition, Google created an experimental spreadsheet editing program,[161] which would be combined with Google Docs on October 10.[162] A program to edit presentations would complete the set on September 17, 2007,[163] before all three services were taken out of beta along with Gmail, Google Calendar and all products from the Google Apps Suite on July 7, 2009.[151]

Enterprise products

Google's search appliance
Google's search appliance at the 2008 RSA Conference
Google entered the enterprise market in February 2002 with the launch of its Google Search Appliance, targeted toward providing search technology for larger organizations.[26] Google launched the Mini three years later, which was targeted at smaller organizations. Late in 2006, Google began to sell Custom Search Business Edition, providing customers with an advertising-free window into's index. The service was renamed Google Site Search in 2008.[164]

Google Apps is another primary Google enterprise service offering. The service allows organizations to bring Google's web application offerings, such as Gmail and Google Docs, into its own domain. The service is available in several editions: a basic free edition (formerly known as Google Apps Standard edition), Google Apps for Business, Google Apps for Education, and Google Apps for Government. Special editions include extras such as more disk space, API access, a service level agreement (SLA), premium support, and additional apps. In the same year Google Apps was launched, Google acquired Postini[165] and proceeded to integrate the company's security technologies into Google Apps[166] under the name Google Postini Services.[167]

Additional Google enterprise offerings include geospatial solutions (e.g., Google Earth and Google Maps); security and archival solutions (e.g., Postini); and Chromebooks for business and education (i.e., personal computing run on browser-centric operating systems).

Other products

Nexus 4, the latest "Google phone"
Google Translate is a server-side machine translation service, which can translate between 35 different languages. Browser extensions allow for easy access to Google Translate from the browser. The software uses corpus linguistics techniques, where the program "learns" from professionally translated documents, specifically UN and European Parliament proceedings.[168] Furthermore, a "suggest a better translation" feature accompanies the translated text, allowing users to indicate where the current translation is incorrect or otherwise inferior to another translation.

Google launched its Google News service in 2002. The site proclaimed that the company had created a "highly unusual" site that "offers a news service compiled solely by computer algorithms without human intervention. Google employs no editors, managing editors, or executive editors."[169] The site hosted less licensed news content than Yahoo! News, and instead presented topically selected links to news and opinion pieces along with reproductions of their headlines, story leads, and photographs.[170] The photographs are typically reduced to thumbnail size and placed next to headlines from other news sources on the same topic in order to minimize copyright infringement claims. Nevertheless, Agence France Presse sued Google for copyright infringement in federal court in the District of Columbia, a case which Google settled for an undisclosed amount in a pact that included a license of the full text of AFP articles for use on Google News.[171]

In 2006, Google made a bid to offer free wireless broadband access throughout the city of San Francisco along with Internet service provider EarthLink. Large telecommunications companies such as Comcast and Verizon opposed such efforts, claiming it was "unfair competition" and that cities would be violating their commitments to offer local monopolies to these companies. In his testimony before Congress on network neutrality in 2006, Google's Chief Internet Evangelist Vint Cerf blamed such tactics on the fact that nearly half of all consumers lack meaningful choice in broadband providers.[172] Google currently offers free wi-fi access in its hometown of Mountain View, California.[173]

In 2010, Google announced the Google Fiber project with plans to build an ultra-high-speed broadband network for 50,000 to 500,000 customers in one or more American cities.[174] On March 30, 2011, Google announced that Kansas City, Kansas would be the first community where the new network would be deployed.[175] In July 2012, Google completed the construction of a fiber-optic broadband internet network infrastructure in Kansas City, and after building an infrastructure, Google announced pricing for Google Fiber. The service will offer three options including a free broadband internet option, a 1Gbit/s internet option for $70 per month and a version that includes television service for $120 per month.[14]

In 2007, reports surfaced that Google was planning the release of its own mobile phone, possibly a competitor to Apple's iPhone.[176][177][178] The project, called Android, turned out not to be a phone but an operating system for mobile devices, which Google acquired and then released as an open source project under the Apache 2.0 license.[179] Google provides a software development kit for developers so applications can be created to be run on Android-based phones. In September 2008, T-Mobile released the G1, the first Android-based phone.[180] More than a year later on January 5, 2010, Google released an Android phone under its own company name called the Nexus One.[181]
Other projects Google has worked on include a new collaborative communication service, a web browser, and even a mobile operating system. The first of these was first announced on May 27, 2009. Google Wave was described as a product that helps users communicate and collaborate on the web. The service is Google's "email redesigned", with realtime editing, the ability to embed audio, video, and other media, and extensions that further enhance the communication experience. Google Wave was previously in a developer's preview, where interested users had to be invited to test the service, but was released to the general public on May 19, 2010, at Google's I/O keynote. On September 1, 2008, Google pre-announced the upcoming availability of Google Chrome, an open source web browser,[182] which was then released on September 2, 2008. The next year, on July 7, 2009, Google announced Google Chrome OS, an open source Linux-based operating system that includes only a web browser and is designed to log users into their Google account.[183][184]

Google Goggles is a mobile application available on Android and iOS used for image recognition and non-text-based search. In addition to scanning QR codes, the app can recognize historic landmarks, import business cards, and solve Sudoku puzzles.[185] While Goggles could originally identify people as well, Google has limited that functionality as a privacy protection.[186]

In 2011, Google announced that it will unveil Google Wallet, a mobile application for wireless payments.[187]
In late June 2011, Google soft-launched a social networking service called Google+.[188] On July 14, 2011, Google announced that Google+ had reached 10 million users just two weeks after it was launched in this "limited" trial phase.[189] After four weeks in operation, it had reached 25 million users.[190]

Corporate affairs and culture

Eric Schmidt, Sergey Brin, and Larry Page sitting together
Then-CEO, now Chairman of Google Eric Schmidt with Sergey Brin and Larry Page (left to right) in 2008.
Google is known for having an informal corporate culture. On Fortune magazine's list of best companies to work for, Google ranked first in 2007, 2008 and 2012[191][192][193] and fourth in 2009 and 2010.[194][195] Google was also nominated in 2010 to be the world’s most attractive employer to graduating students in the Universum Communications talent attraction index.[196] Google's corporate philosophy embodies such casual principles as "you can make money without doing evil," "you can be serious without a suit," and "work should be challenging and the challenge should be fun."[197]


Google's stock performance following its initial public offering has enabled many early employees to be competitively compensated.[198] After the company's IPO, founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page and CEO Eric Schmidt requested that their base salary be cut to $1. Subsequent offers by the company to increase their salaries have been turned down, primarily because their main compensation continues to come from owning stock in Google. Before 2004, Schmidt was making $250,000 per year, and Page and Brin each earned a salary of $150,000.[199]

In 2007 and through early 2008, several top executives left Google. In October 2007, former chief financial officer of YouTube Gideon Yu joined Facebook[200] along with Benjamin Ling, a high-ranking engineer.[201] In March 2008, Sheryl Sandberg, then vice-president of global online sales and operations, began her position as chief operating officer of Facebook[202] while Ash ElDifrawi, formerly head of brand advertising, left to become chief marketing officer of Netshops, an online retail company that was renamed Hayneedle in 2009.[203] On April 4, 2011 Larry Page became CEO and Eric Schmidt became Executive Chairman of Google.[204] In July 2012 Google's first female employee, Marissa Mayer left Google to become Yahoo's CEO.[205]
Asian man in his twenties wearing a blue, green, yellow and red propeller hat that says "Noogle"
New employees are called "Nooglers," and are given a propeller beanie cap to wear on their first Friday.[206]
As a motivation technique, Google uses a policy often called Innovation Time Off, where Google engineers are encouraged to spend 20% of their work time on projects that interest them. Some of Google's newer services, such as Gmail, Google News, Orkut, and AdSense originated from these independent endeavors.[207] In a talk at Stanford University, Marissa Mayer, Google's Vice President of Search Products and User Experience until July 2012, showed that half of all new product launches at the time had originated from the Innovation Time Off.[208]
In March 2011, consulting firm Universum released data that Google ranks first on the list of ideal employers by nearly 25 percent chosen from more than 10,000 young professionals asked.[209] Fortune magazine ranked Google as number one on its 100 Best Companies To Work For list for 2012.[210]


The Googleplex
The Googleplex, Google's original and largest corporate campus

Google Mountain View campus garden

Google Mountain View dinosaur 'Stan'
Google's headquarters in Mountain View, California is referred to as "the Googleplex", a play on words on the number googolplex and the headquarters itself being a complex of buildings. The lobby is decorated with a piano, lava lamps, old server clusters, and a projection of search queries on the wall. The hallways are full of exercise balls and bicycles. Each employee has access to the corporate recreation center. Recreational amenities are scattered throughout the campus and include a workout room with weights and rowing machines, locker rooms, washers and dryers, a massage room, assorted video games, table football, a baby grand piano, a billiard table, and ping pong. In addition to the rec room, there are snack rooms stocked with various foods and drinks, with special emphasis placed on nutrition.[211] Free food is available to employees 24/7, with paid vending machines prorated favoring nutritional value.[212]

In 2006, Google moved into 311,000 square feet (28,900 m2) of office space in New York City, at 111 Eighth Avenue in Manhattan.[213] The office was specially designed and built for Google, and it now houses its largest advertising sales team, which has been instrumental in securing large partnerships.[213] In 2003, they added an engineering staff in New York City, which has been responsible for more than 100 engineering projects, including Google Maps, Google Spreadsheets, and others. It is estimated that the building costs Google $10 million per year to rent and is similar in design and functionality to its Mountain View headquarters, including table football, air hockey, and ping-pong tables, as well as a video game area. In November 2006, Google opened offices on Carnegie Mellon's campus in Pittsburgh, focusing on shopping related advertisement coding and smartphone applications and programs.[214][215] By late 2006, Google also established a new headquarters for its AdWords division in Ann Arbor, Michigan.[216] Furthermore, Google has offices all around the world, and in the United States, including Ann Arbor, Michigan; Atlanta, Georgia; Austin, Texas; Boulder, Colorado; Cambridge, Massachusetts; New York City; San Francisco, California; Seattle, Washington; Reston, Virginia, and Washington, D.C.
Google's NYC office building
Google's NYC office building houses its largest advertising sales team.[213]
Google is taking steps to ensure that its operations are environmentally sound. In October 2006, the company announced plans to install thousands of solar panels to provide up to 1.6 megawatts of electricity, enough to satisfy approximately 30% of the campus' energy needs.[217] The system will be the largest solar power system constructed on a U.S. corporate campus and one of the largest on any corporate site in the world.[217] In addition, Google announced in 2009 that it was deploying herds of goats to keep grassland around the Googleplex short, helping to prevent the threat from seasonal bush fires while also reducing the carbon footprint of mowing the extensive grounds.[218][219] The idea of trimming lawns using goats originated from R. J. Widlar, an engineer who worked for National Semiconductor.[220] Despite this, Google has faced accusations in Harper's Magazine of being an "energy glutton", and was accused of employing its "Don't be evil" motto as well as its very public energy-saving campaigns as an attempt to cover up or make up for the massive amounts of energy its servers actually require.[221]

Easter eggs and April Fools' Day jokes

Google has a tradition of creating April Fools' Day jokes. For example, Google MentalPlex allegedly featured the use of mental power to search the web.[222] In 2007, Google announced a free Internet service called TiSP, or Toilet Internet Service Provider, where one obtained a connection by flushing one end of a fiber-optic cable down their toilet.[223] Also in 2007, Google's Gmail page displayed an announcement for Gmail Paper, allowing users to have email messages printed and shipped to them.[224] In 2008 Google announced Gmail Custom time where users could change the time that the email was sent.[225] In 2010, Google jokingly changed its company name to Topeka in honor of Topeka, Kansas, whose mayor actually changed the city's name to Google for a short amount of time in an attempt to sway Google's decision in its new Google Fiber Project.[226][227] In 2011, Google announced Gmail Motion, an interactive way of controlling Gmail and the computer with body movements via the user's webcam.[228]

In addition to April Fools' Day jokes, Google's services contain a number of easter eggs. For instance, Google included the Swedish Chef's "Bork bork bork," Pig Latin, "Hacker" or leetspeak, Elmer Fudd, Pirate, and Klingon as language selections for its search engine.[229] In addition, the search engine calculator provides the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything from Douglas Adams' The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.[230] Furthermore, when searching the word "recursion", the spell-checker's result for the properly spelled word is exactly the same word, creating a recursive link.[231] Likewise, when searching for the word "anagram," meaning a rearrangement of letters from one word to form other valid words, Google's suggestion feature displays "Did you mean: nag a ram?"[232] In Google Maps, searching for directions between places separated by large bodies of water, such as Los Angeles and Tokyo, results in instructions to "kayak across the Pacific Ocean." During FIFA World Cup 2010, search queries like "World Cup", "FIFA", etc. caused the "" page indicator at the bottom of every result page to read "!" instead.[233] Typing in 'Do a barrel roll' in the search engine will make the page do a 360° rotation.


In 2004, Google formed the not-for-profit philanthropic, with a start-up fund of $1 billion.[234] The mission of the organization is to create awareness about climate change, global public health, and global poverty. One of its first projects was to develop a viable plug-in hybrid electric vehicle that can attain 100 miles per gallon. Google hired Dr. Larry Brilliant as the program's executive director in 2004[235] and the current director is Megan Smith.[236]

In 2008 Google announced its "project 10100" which accepted ideas for how to help the community and then allowed Google users to vote on their favorites.[237] After two years of silence, during which many wondered what had happened to the program,[238] Google revealed the winners of the project, giving a total of ten million dollars to various ideas ranging from non-profit organizations that promote education to a website that intends to make all legal documents public and online.[239]
In 2011, Google donated 1 million euros to International Mathematical Olympiad to support the next five annual International Mathematical Olympiads (2011–2015).[240] On July 2012, Google launched a "Legalize Love" campaign in support of gay rights worldwide.[241]

Tax avoidance

Google uses various tax avoidance strategies. Consequently, out of the five largest American technology companies it pays the lowest taxes to the countries of origin of its revenues. This is accomplished partly by licensing technology through subsidiaries in Ireland, Bermuda, the Bahamas and the Netherlands.[242] This has reportedly sparked a French investigation into Google's transfer pricing practices.[243]
Following criticism of the amount of corporate taxes that Google paid in the United Kingdom, Chairman Eric Schmidt said, "It's called capitalism. We are proudly capitalistic." During the same December 2012 interview Schmidt "confirmed that the company had no intention of paying more to the UK exchequer."[244]

Network neutrality

Google is a noted supporter of network neutrality. According to Google's Guide to Net Neutrality:
Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be in control of what content they view and what applications they use on the Internet. The Internet has operated according to this neutrality principle since its earliest days... Fundamentally, net neutrality is about equal access to the Internet. In our view, the broadband carriers should not be permitted to use their market power to discriminate against competing applications or content. Just as telephone companies are not permitted to tell consumers who they can call or what they can say, broadband carriers should not be allowed to use their market power to control activity online.
On February 7, 2006, Vint Cerf, a co-inventor of the Internet Protocol (IP), and current Vice President and "Chief Internet Evangelist" at Google, in testimony before Congress, said, "allowing broadband carriers to control what people see and do online would fundamentally undermine the principles that have made the Internet such a success."[246]


In January 2013, Google managed to avoid any fines in exchange for its agreement to discontinue certain anticompetitive activities.[247]

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External links

Business data

This list of Google products includes all major desktop, mobile and online products released or acquired by Google Inc. This list also includes prior products, that have been merged, discarded or renamed.


Web-based products

These products must be accessed via a web browser:

Search tools

  • Google search – web search engine, which is Google's core product. It was the company's first creation, coming out of beta on September 21, 1999, and remains their most popular and famous service. It receives 100 billion search queries per month and is the most used search engine on the Internet. Google also offers regional search by its regional level domains, it has 189 different regional domains, see List of Google domains
  • Accessible Search – search engine for the blind and visually impaired. It prioritizes usable and accessible web sites in the search results, so users incur minimal distractions when browsing.
  • Google Alerts – email notification service, which sends alerts based on chosen search terms, whenever there are new results. Alerts include web results, Groups results news, and video.
  • Blog searchweblog search engine, with a continuously-updated search index. Results include all blogs, not just those published through Blogger. Results can be viewed and filtered by date.
  • Google Books (was Print) – search engine for the full text of printed books. Google scans and stores in its digital database. The content that is displayed depends on the arrangement with the publishers, ranging from short extracts to entire books.
  • Google Custom Search – allows a user to create a customized search experience for his/her own website. Renamed from Google Co-op, which in turn replaced Google Free Search.
  • Directory – navigation directory, specifically for Chinese users.
  • Experimental Search – options for testing new interfaces whilst searching with Google, including Timeline views and keyboard shortcuts.
  • Google Finance – searchable US business news, opinion, and financial data. Features include company-specific pages, blog search, interactive charts, executives information, discussion groups and a portfolio.
  • Google Groups – web and email discussion service and Usenet archive. Users can join a group, make a group, publish posts, track their favorite topics, write a set of group web pages updatable by members and share group files. In January, 2007, version 3 of Google Groups was released. New features include the ability to create customised pages and share files.
  • Hotpot – is a search that allows people to rate restaurants, hotels etc. and share them with friends.
  • Google Hotel Finder - Provides searches similar to other Online Travel Agencies (Travel website) that searchers can search for check-in and check-out dates.[1]
  • Google Image Search – image search engine, with results based on the filename of the image, the link text pointing to the image and text adjacent to the image. You can also make a search by uploading a picture from your computer.When searching, a thumbnail of each matching image is displayed.
  • Language Tools – Collection of linguistic applications, including one that allows users to translate text or web pages from one language to another, and another that allows searching in web pages located in a specific country or written in a specific language.
  • Life Search (Google China) – Search engine tailored towards everyday needs, such as train times, recipes and housing.
  • Movies – specialised search engine that obtains show times of films near a user-entered location and provides reviews of films compiled from several different websites.
  • Google News – automated news compilation service and search engine for news. There are versions of the aggregator for more than 20 languages. While the selection of news stories is fully automated, the sites included are selected by human editors.
  • Google News archive – feature within Google News, that allows users to browse articles from over 200 years ago.
  • Google Patent Search – search engine to search through millions of patents, each result with its own page, including drawings, claims and citations.
  • Google Schemer - A social search to find local activities to do at home and around the world.
  • Google Scholar – search engine for the full text of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and scholarly fields. Today, the index includes virtually all peer-reviewed journals available online.
  • Google Shopping (was Google Product Search and Froogle): price engine that searches online stores, including auctions, for products. Beginning in Fall of 2012, it will become a fully commercial product, only indexing paid listings.[2]
  • SMSmobile phone short message service offered by Google in several countries, including the USA, Japan, Canada, India, Pakistan and China and formerly the UK, Germany and Spain. It allows search queries to be sent as a text message. The results are sent as a reply, with no premium charge for the service.
  • Suggestauto-completion in search results while typing to give popular searches.
  • Google Video – video search engine and online store for clips internally submitted by companies and the general public. Google's main video partnerships include agreements with CBS, NHL and the NBA. Also searches videos posted on YouTube, Metacafe, Daily Motion, and other popular video hosting sites. Google Video will no longer host video content after August 20, 2012[3]
  • Voice Local Search – non-premium phone service for searching and contacting local businesses
  • Web History (was Google Search History, Personalized Search) – web page tracking, which records Google searches, Web pages, images, videos, music and more. It also includes Bookmarks, search trends and item recommendations. Google released Search History in April 2005, when it began to record browsing history,[4] later expanding and renaming the service to Web History in April 2007.[5]
  • Knowledge Graph – a knowledge base used to enhance search results with semantic information gathered from several sources.
  • Google Trader - a free online classifieds service that allows people to post or find jobs and buy or sell goods and services. Currently available in Ghana, Kenya, Uganda, Thailand and Nigeria[6]

Advertising services

  • AdMob – Mobile advertising network.
  • Google AdSense – Offers a contextual advertising solution to web publishers, and delivers text-based Google AdWords ads that are relevant to site content pages.
  • Google AdWords – advertise with Google AdWords ads in the Sponsored Links section next to search results to boost website traffic and sales.
  • Adwords Express –Local online advertising made easy
  • Google Certification ProgramGoogle AdWords partner certification program, providing AdWords qualifications to agencies that pass exams and other criteria. Replaced Google Advertising Professionals in April 2010.
  • DoubleClick – ad management and ad serving technology foundation for buyers, creators and sellers of digital media.
  • DoubleClick for Publishers by Google – Set of tools for driving direct sales revenue and maximizing yield on non-guaranteed inventory.
  • Google Grants – in-kind donation program awarding free AdWords advertising to select charitable organizations.
  • Google Website Optimizer – free website testing and optimization tool, allows a user to increase the value of his/her existing websites and traffic.
  • Meebo – Create a profile and advertise on the network.

Communication and publishing tools

  • FeedBurnernews feed management services, including feed traffic analysis and advertising facilities.
  • Google 3D Warehouse – online service that hosts 3D models of existing objects, locations (including buildings) and vehicles created in Google SketchUp by the aforementioned application's users. The models can be downloaded into Google SketchUp by other users or Google Earth.
  • Google Apps – service for businesses, enterprise and education providing independently customizable versions of several Google products under a custom domain name. Features included are Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Docs, Google Sites, Google Contacts, Google Video, Google Groups, Google Buzz, GTalk, Google Maps, Google Mars, Google Moon, and Google Earth.
  • Bloggerweblog publishing tool. Users can create custom, hosted blogs with features such as photo publishing, comments, group blogs, blogger profiles and mobile-based posting with little technical knowledge.
  • Google Bookmarks – free online bookmark storage service, available to Google Account holders[7] launched on October 10, 2005.[8]
  • Boutiques [1] – personalized shopping experience that lets users find and discover fashion goods.
  • Google Business Solutions – collection of services offered by Google specifically directed at webmasters and businesses.[9] Products included are Feedburner, Google AdWords, Google AdSense, Google Analytics, Google Enterprise Search solutions, Google Apps, Google Checkout, Google Local Business Center, Google Merchant Center, Google Trusted Stores, Postini, Google Webmaster Central, Google Ad Manager, Google Maps and Earth Solutions, Google Website Optimizer, Google Site Search, and Google Friend Connect.
  • Google Calendar – free online calendar, includes Gmail integration, calendar sharing, and a "quick add" function that allows inserting events using natural language input. It is similar to those offered by Yahoo! and Windows Live.
  • Google Docs – document, spreadsheet, drawing and presentation application, with document collaboration and publishing capabilities.
  • Google Drive – an online backup service and storage space. This service is connected with Google Docs.
  • Google Friend Connect – an online service that allows website and blog owners to add social features to their websites. It also allows users to connect with their friends on different websites that have implemented Google Friend Connect on their website.
  • Gmail (also termed Google Mail) – free Webmail IMAP and POP email service provided by Google, known for its abundant storage, intuitive search-based interface and elasticity. It was first released in an invitation-only form on April 1, 2004. Mobile access and Google Talk integration is also featured.
  • – URL shortener.
  • Google+ – Google's social networking service.
  • iGoogle (was Google Personalized Homepage) – Customizable homepage, which can contain Web feeds and Google Gadgets, launched in May 2005. It was renamed to iGoogle on April 30, 2007 (was used internally by Google). iGoogle will be discontinued on November 1, 2013.
  • Marratech e-MeetingWeb conferencing software, used internally by Google's employees. Google acquired the software from creator Marratech on April 19, 2007. Google has not yet stated what it will do with the product.
  • OrkutSocial networking service, where users can list their personal and professional information, create relationships amongst friends and join communities of mutual interest. In November 2006, Google opened Orkut registration to everyone, instead of being invitation only.
  • Panoramio – Photos of the world.
  • Picasa Web Albums – Online photo sharing, with integration with the main Picasa program.
  • Picnik – Online photo editing service.[ Picnik closed on April 19, 2012. They’ve packed up and moved some of their most popular tools and effects to Google+.
  • Google profile – allows controlling how users appear and present themselves on Google products, to other Google users, and tell others a bit more about who they are.
  • Questions and Answers (Arabic, Chinese, Russian, Thai) – Community-driven knowledge market website. Launched on June 26, 2007 that allows users to ask and answer questions posed by other users.[10]
  • Google Reader – web-based news aggregator, capable of reading Atom and RSS feeds. It lets users search, import and subscribe to feeds. The service also embeds audio enclosures in the page. Major revisions to Google Reader were made in October 2006.
  • Google Sites (was Jotspot) – Website creation tool for private or public groups, for both personal and corporate use.
  • SMS Channels (Google India only) – Launched September 2008, allows users to create and subscribe to channels over SMS. Channels can be based on RSS feeds.
  • Speak To Tweettelephone service created in collaboration with Twitter and SayNow allowing users to phone a specific number and leave a voicemail; a tweet is automatically posted on Twitter with a link to the voice message stored on Google's SayNow.
  • Google Voice (United States only) – known as "GrandCentral" before 2009-03-11, Google Voice is a free voice communication system. GVoice provides a phone number, but is not a last mile provider (unlike POTS, which does provide the last mile connection). It includes a follow-me service that lets users forward their Google voice phone number to simultaneously ring up to 6 other phone numbers. It also features a unified voice mail service, SMS and free outgoing calls via Google's "click2call" and 3rd party dialers.
  • Web Fonts – interactive directory of free hosted web font-API's.
  • YouTube – free video sharing Web site which lets users upload, view, and share video clips. In October 2006, Google, Inc., announced that it had reached a deal to acquire the company for $1.65 billion USD in Google stock. The deal closed on 13 November 2006.

Development resources

  • AngularJS - AngularJS is a toolset for building the framework most suited to your application development [2].
  • Google App Engine – tool that allows developers to write and run web applications.
  • Google Closure Tools – Javascript tools used by Google products such as GMail, Google Docs and Google Maps.
  • Google Code – Google's site for developers interested in Google-related development. The site contains Open Source code and lists of their API services. Also provides project hosting for any free and open source software.
  • Dart – it is a structured web programming language developed by Google.
  • Google Go – compiled, concurrent programming language developed by Google.
  • OpenSocial – set of common APIs for building social applications on many websites.
  • Page Speed – tool for helping developers to optimize the performance of their webpages.
  • Google Swiffy – tool that converts Adobe Flash files (SWF) into HTML5.
  • Google Web Toolkit – open source Java software development framework that allows web developers to create Ajax applications in Java.
  • Webmaster Tools (was Google Sitemaps): Sitemap submission and analysis for the Sitemaps protocol. Renamed from Google Sitemaps to cover broader features, including query statistics and robots.txt analysis.
  • Google Developers – a documentation site dealing with the platforms provided by Google.
  • Translator Toolkit - collaborated translation tool -

Map-related products

  • Google Building Maker – web based building and editing tool to create 3D buildings for Google Earth.
  • Google Map Maker – a map editor.
  • Google Maps – Mapping service that indexes streets and displays satellite and street-level imagery, providing driving directions and local business search.
  • Google Maps Coordinate – enterprise-only "workforce management tool".
  • Google Mars – imagery of Mars using the Google Maps interface. Elevation, visible imagery and infrared imagery can be shown. It was released on March 13, 2006, the anniversary of the birth of astronomer Percival Lowell.
  • Google Moon – NASA imagery of the moon through the Google Maps interface. It was launched on July 20, 2005, in honor of the first manned Moon landing on July 20, 1969.
  • Google Sky – Internet tool to view stars and galaxies, can be used via browser version of "Google Sky".
  • Google Transit – Public transport trip planning through the Google Maps interface, now fully integrated with maps. Released on December 7, 2005.
  • Zygote Body (previously Google Body) – 3D anatomical model of human body.

Statistical tools

  • Google Analytics – Traffic statistics generator for defined websites, with strong AdWords integration. Webmasters can optimize their ad campaigns, based on the statistics that are given. Analytics is based on the Urchin software and the new version released in May 2007 integrates improvements based on Measure Map.
  • Correlate – Search patterns relating to real world trends.
  • Google Fusion Tables – Tool for gathering and visualizing arbitrary data.
  • Google Insights for Search – Google Insights for Search was a service by Google similar to Google Trends, providing insights into the search terms people have been entering into the Google search engine. Google Insights for Search has been discontinued since September 27, 2012 by Google and Now Google Insights has merged in Google Trends.
  • Google Refine – Tool for data cleansing and processing.
  • Trendalyzer – data trend viewing platform to make nations' statistics accessible on the internet in an animated, interactive graph form. Acquired from the Gapminder Foundation in 2007.
  • Google Trends – graph plotting application for Web Search statistics, showing the popularity of particular search terms over time. Multiple terms can be shown at once. Results can also be displayed by city, region or language. Related news stories are also shown. Has "Google Trends for Websites" sub-section which shows popularity of websites over time.
  • Zeitgeist – Collection of lists of the most frequent search queries. There used to be weekly, monthly and yearly lists, and topic and country specific lists. Closed 22 May 2007 and replaced by "Hot Trends, a dynamic feature in Google Trends". An annual Zeitgeist summary for the US and other countries is still produced.

Operating systems

  • Android – an operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers.
  • Google Chrome OS – Linux-based operating system designed by Google to work exclusively with web applications. Runs on the "Chromebook" and the nettop "Chromebox", the first of which (Samsung Series 3) was released in May 2012.[11]
  • Google TV – smart TV platform that integrates Android and the Linux version of Google Chrome to create an interactive television overlay on top of existing internet television and WebTV sites to add a 10-foot user interface.

Desktop applications

  • AdWords Editor – desktop application to manage a Google AdWords account; lets users make changes to their account and advertising campaigns before synchronizing with the online service. (Supports Mac OS X, Windows 2000 SP3+, Windows XP, and Windows Vista.)
  • Google Chrome – web browser. (Supports Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Linux (specifically Debian- and Red Hat/Fedora-based versions), and Mac OS X.)
  • Google Earth – virtual 3D globe that uses satellite imagery, aerial photography, GIS from Google's repository. (Supports Linux, Mac OS X, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, iPhone, iPad, and Android.)
  • Gmail Notifier – alerts users to new messages in their Gmail account. (Supports Mac OS X, Windows 2000, and Windows XP.)
  • IME – input method editor that allows users to enter text in one of the supported languages using a Roman keyboard. (Supports Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7.)
  • Google Japanese Input – Japanese input method editor. (Supports Windows XP SP2+, Windows Vista SP1+, 7, and Mac OS X Leopard+.) (Google Japan)
  • Picasa – photo organization and editing application, providing photo library options and simple effects. Also includes Facial Recognition and GeoTagging features. (Supports Mac OS X, Linux, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7.)
  • Picasa Web Albums Uploader – application to upload images to the "Picasa Web Albums" service. It consists of both an iPhoto plug-in and a stand-alone application. (Supports Mac OS X.)
  • Google Pinyininput method editor that is used to convert Chinese Pinyin characters, which can be entered on Western-style keyboards, to Chinese characters. (Supports Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Vista.) (Google China)
  • Quick Search Box – search box, based on Quicksilver, which allows easily viewing installed applications or performing online searches. (Supports Mac OS X.)
  • Wireless accessVPN client for Google WiFi users, whose equipment does not support WPA or 802.1x protocols. (Supports Windows 2000 and Windows XP)
  • SketchUp – modeling application to sketch simple 3D structures for integrating into Google Earth. (Supports Mac OS X, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7.)
  • Google Toolbar – web browser toolbar with features such as a Google Search box, pop-up blocker and ability for website owners to create buttons. (Supports Internet Explorer.)
  • Visigami – image search application screen saver that searches files from Google Images, Picasa and Flickr. (Supports Mac OS X Leopard.)

Mobile applications

Mobile web applications

These products can be accessed through a browser on a mobile device.
  • Blogger Mobile – available on some US and Canadian networks only. Allows updating Blogger blog from mobile devices.
  • Google Calendar – displays a list of all Google Calendar events on a mobile device; users can quickly add events to personal calendars.
  • Drive – View documents on a mobile device, previously known as Google Docs.
  • Gmail – access a Gmail account from a mobile device using a standard mobile web browser. Alternatively, Google provides a specific mobile application to access and download Gmail messages quicker. User must now provide phone number to verify account.
  • iGoogle – mobile version of iGoogle that can be easily customised with modules.
  • Google Latitude – mobile geolocation tool that lets friends know where users are via Google Maps.
  • Maps NavigationAndroid navigation application for GPS-enabled mobile devices (such as Google Nexus One) with 3D views, voice guided turn-by-turn navigation and automatic rerouting. It is currently available in the United States, Canada, UK, Ireland, France, Italy, Germany, Spain, Netherlands, Denmark, Austria, Switzerland, Australia and Belgium.[12] (Supports Android only).
  • Mobilizer – optimizes web pages for mobile web browsers.
  • Google News – allows user to access Google News in a mobile-optimized view.
  • Google Offers – will work together with Google Wallet to combine coupons, discounts, and payments for people buying things through their phone.[13]
  • Orkut – connect and share with friends on the go.
  • Google+ – another similar social network targeted at Facebook users.
  • Picasa Web Albums – allows viewing, sharing photo albums that are stored online on Picasa.
  • Google Product Search – updated version of the prior Froogle Mobile that allows users to easily search for information about a product.
  • Google Reader – displays Google Reader on a mobile device.
  • Google Search for Android - A Google Search app for the Android operating system.
  • Google Wallet – Android app that makes your phone your wallet using near field communication, or NFC; its virtual plastic card. Will work together with Google Offers to combine coupons, discounts, and payments for people buying things through their phone.[13]
  • Google Currents – interactive magazine. Launched December 9, 2011.

Mobile standalone applications

Some of these products must be downloaded and run from a mobile device.
  • Books – (available in U.S.,UK, Australia and Canada only) A downloadable application that allows users to buy and download books and keep them stored on remote servers, allows reading one book on a variety of devices.[14] (Android, iOS)
  • Gmail – downloadable application that has many advantages over accessing Gmail through a web interface on a mobile at any time, such as the ability to interact with Gmail features including labels and archiving. Requires a properly configured Java Virtual Machine, which is not available by default on some platforms (such as Palm Treo).
  • Drive - Downloadable app that allows the user to access files and documents stored on Google Drive remotely through this application. This service was previously available as just a web-service and was called Google Docs.
  • Google Goggles – downloadable application from Google Labs that uses image recognition to trigger searches based on pictures taken with a device's built-in camera; taking pictures of things (examples: famous landmark, product barcode) causes searches for information on them.[15] (Supports Android, iOS).
  • Listen – downloadable application from Google Labs for subscribing to and streaming podcasts and Web audio. It runs on Android and other mobile phones.
  • Maps – mobile application to view maps on mobile devices. Lets users find addresses and plot directions. Teamed with a GPS, it can use user geolocation and show current location on the map. Users can also share current locations with friends through Google Latitude. The device must have either a specific application to use Google maps or any phone with a properly configured Java Virtual Machine. (Supports Android, BlackBerry, Windows Mobile, iOS, Symbian, Palm OS, Palm WebOS, and J2ME).
  • Google Music – online music store which started operations on 16 November 2011.[16] Music is now available for free.
  • Reader – downloadable RSS application that supports unread counts, friends, sharing, liking, and starring.[17] (Supports Android).
  • Shopper – downloadable application that makes shopping easier and smarter. (Supports Android, iOS)
  • Sky Map – augmented reality program displaying a star map which is scrolled by moving the phone. (Supports Android, Mobile).
  • Google Sync – synchronizes mobile phones with multiple Google calendars and contacts using a Google Account.
  • Talk – VoIP and text application for smartphones. The Android version is text only and lacks the VoIP function of BlackBerry version. (Supports Android, BlackBerry, iOS).
  • Translate – allows users to translate conversations instantly. (Supports Android, iOS)
  • Google Voice app – downloadable application for accessing Google Voice functions on selected devices. It is currently available for users around the world. (Supports Android, Blackberry, iOS).
  • Yinyue (Music) (Google China) – site containing links to a large archive of Chinese pop music (principally Cantopop and Mandopop), including audio streaming over Google's own player, legal lyric downloads, and in most cases legal MP3 downloads. The archive is provided by (i.e., this service does not search the whole Internet) and is available in mainland China only.
  • YouTube – downloadable application to view YouTube videos on selected devices.
  • YouTube Remote – A downloadable application to view YouTube videos, it lets users browse and play videos, control television volume and essentially do everything the YouTube Leanback product supports, but from their mobile handset.[18] (Supports Android).
  • Google Now – A built in application that acts as your personal assistant through voice commands (Supports Android).
  • Google+ - A downloadable app that will allow the user to access the multilingual, social networking site by Google Inc.. It provides the user the ability to incorporate his/her accounts from Youtube, Picasa in order to share photos and videos. Hangouts, Circles, Sparks and Ripples are some of the new features that have been added by Google into G+.
  • Field Trip - Is a new application for discover new nearly places and events. Currently is only available as an application for Android.


Nexus 4, the latest "Google phone"
  • Google Enterprise Search Appliance – a search appliance designed for indexing corporate data.
  • Motorola Mobility - mobile manufacturer. In August 2011, Google, Inc., announced that it had reached a deal to acquire the company for $12.5 billion USD in cash.[19] The deal closed on 23 May 2012.[20]
  • Nexus One – Smartphone running the Android open source mobile operating system.
  • Nexus S – Smartphone running the Android open source mobile operating system, version 4.1 "Jelly Bean"
  • Galaxy Nexus – Smartphone running the Android open source mobile operating system, version 4.2.1 "Jelly Bean".
  • Nexus Q – Media-streaming entertainment device in the Google Nexus product family.
  • Nexus 7 – 7" Tablet manufactured by Asus running the Android open source mobile operating system, version 4.2.1 "Jelly Bean".
  • Nexus 4 - 4.7" Phone manufactured by LG running the Android open source mobile operating system, version 4.2.1 "Jelly Bean".
  • Nexus 10 – 10" Tablet running the Android open source mobile operating system, version 4.2.1 "Jelly Bean".
  • Chromebook – Laptop personal computer running the Google Chrome OS operating system.
  • Chromebox – Desktop personal computer running the Google Chrome OS operating system.
  • Project Glass - Project Glass products would display information in smartphone-like format[3] hands-free and could interact with the Internet via natural language voice commands.


  • Google Crisis Response – public project, which covers ongoing and past disasters, turmoils and other emergencies.
  • Google Fiber is a project to build an experimental broadband internet network infrastructure using fiber-optic communication in Kansas City, Kansas and Kansas City, Missouri.
  • Google Public DNS – publicly accessible DNS server run by Google.
  • Google Ideas - a cross-sector, inter-disciplinary "think tank" or "think/do tank" based in New York City, dedicated to understanding global challenges and applying technological solutions.

Discontinued products and services

Applications that have been retired by Google, either because of integration with other Google products, or through lack of support:
  • Google Checkout – online payment processing service provided by Google aimed at simplifying the process of paying for online purchases. Webmasters can choose to implement Google Checkout as a form of payment. Merged into Google Wallet.
  • Aardvark – Social search utility which allows people to ask and answer questions within their social networks. It uses people's claimed expertise to match askers with good answerers.
  • Google Answers – Online knowledge market offered by Google that allowed users to post bounties for well researched answers to their queries. Discontinued on November 28, 2006; still accessible (as read-only).
  • Audio Ads – Radio advertising program for US businesses. Rolled out on May 15, 2007 through the AdWords interface. Discontinued on February 12, 2009.
  • Google Base – Google submission database that enabled content owners to submit content, have it hosted and made searchable. Information within the database was organized using attributes.
  • Blogger Web Comments (Firefox only) – Displays related comments from other Blogger users.
  • Google Docs - Integrated in Google Drive.
  • Google Browser Sync (Firefox) – allowed users of Mozilla Firefox to synchronize their web browser settings across multiple computers via the Internet.. Discontinued in June 2008.
  • Google Buzz – social networking service integrated with Gmail service allowing users to share updates, photos, videos, and more at once. It let users make conversations about things they found interesting. It was released on February 9, 2010. Discontinued by end of 2011.[21]
  • Catalogs – Search engine for over 6,600 print catalogs, acquired through optical character recognition. Discontinued January 2009.
  • City Tours – overlay to Maps that shows interesting tours within a city
  • AdWords#Google Click-to-Call – allowed a user speak directly over the phone, for free, to businesses he/she finds on Google search results pages. Discontinued in 2007.
  • Google Code Search – Search engine for programming code found on the Internet. Shut down on January 15, 2012.[22]
  • Dashboard Widgets for Mac (Mac OS X Dashboard Widgets) – Collection of mini-applications including Gmail, Blogger and Search History.
  • Google Deskbar – desktop bar with a built-in mini browser. Replaced by a similar feature in Google Desktop. Discontinued as of May 8, 2006.
  • Desktop (Mac OS X, Windows 2000 SP3+, XP, Vista, 7, Linux): Desktop search application that indexes emails, documents, music, photos, chats, Web history and other files. It allows the installation of Google Gadgets.
  • Google Dictionary – it was first introduced as part of Google Translate, it then became a standalone service that allowed searching of words and phrases from over 22 languages.
  • Google Directory – Collection of links arranged into hierarchical subcategories. The links and their categorization were from the Open Directory Project, but were sorted using PageRank. It was closed on July 20, 2011.
  • DodgeballSocial networking service for mobile phones. Users could text their location to the service, which would then notify them of crushes, friends, friends' friends and interesting venues nearby. Development ceased on January 14, 2009; discontinued over the next few months; replaced by Google Latitude.
  • Google Fast Flip – Online news aggregator that mimics the experience of flicking through a newspaper or magazine, allowing visual search of stories in manner similar to microfiche.
  • Free Search – free code to embed site/web search into a user's website. Discontinued; replaced by Google Custom Search.
  • Google Desktop – Mini-applications designed to display information or provide a function in a succinct manner. Available in Universal or Desktop format.
  • Google Health – allows a user to store, manage and share all of his/her health and wellness information in one central place. Development ceased June 24, 2011; accessible until January 1, 2012; data available for download until January 1, 2013.
  • Gears (Google Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer and Safari): A browser plug-in that enables development of off-line browser applications.
  • GOOG-411 –Google's directory assistance service, which can be used free of charge from any telephone in the US and Canada. Discontinued as of November 12, 2010.
  • Hello – allowed a user to send images across the Internet and publish them to his/her blog(s). Discontinued on May 15, 2008.
  • Google Image Labeler – game that induces participants to submit valid descriptions (labels) of images in the web, in order to later improve Image Search.
  • Google Labs – allows users to test and demonstrate new Google products.
  • Jaiku – Jaiku is a social networking, micro-blogging and lifestreaming service comparable to Twitter.
  • Joga BonitoSoccer community site, similar to services such as MySpace, in that each member had a profile, and could join groups based on shared interests. The service allowed a user to meet other fans, create games and clubs, access athletes from Nike, and watch and upload video clips and photos.
  • Google Lively – 3D animated chat program launched on July 9, 2008 and closed December 31, 2008.[23] (Windows XP, Vista)
  • Knol – service that enabled subject experts and other users to write authoritative articles related to various topics. Content were not accessible after October 1, 2012.[24]
  • Local – Local listings service, before it was integrated with mapping. The merged service was then called Google Local, which was further renamed to Google Maps due to popular demand. Google Local still exists, but only for Google Mobile Search.
  • Mashup Editor – (deprecated as of January 14, 2009) Web Mashup creation with publishing facilities, syntax highlighting, debugging.
  • MK-14 – 4U rack mounted server for Google Radio Automation system. Google Inc. has sold its Google Radio Automation business to WideOrbit Inc.[25]
  • Google Trends#Google Music Trends – Music ranking of songs played with iTunes, Winamp, Windows Media Player and Yahoo Music. Trends were generated by Google Talk's "share your music status" feature.
  • Notebook – web clipping application for saving online research. It is no longer supported by Google, and was replaced with Google Docs. The tool permits users to clip text, images, and links from pages while browsing, save them online, access them from any computer, and share them with others. Google stopped development on Notebook and no longer accepts sign-ups. While old users can still access their notebooks, newcomers are offered to try other services such as Google Docs and Google Bookmarks.[26]
  • Google Pack – Collection of applications – some Google-created (including Google Earth, Google Desktop, Picasa, Google Talk, and Google Chrome), some not. (Supported Windows XP, Vista, 7)
  • Google Page Creator – webpage-publishing program, which can be used to create pages and to host them on Google's servers. However, to focus on another Google Webpage-publishing service called Google Sites, new sign-ups are no longer accepted since 2008. And all existing content on Page Creator has been transferred to Google Sites in 2009.
  • Personalized Search – Search results personalization, now fully merged with Google Accounts and Web History.
  • Photos Screensaver – Slideshow screensaver as part of Google Pack, which displays images sourced from a hard disk, or through RSS and Atom Web feeds.
  • Google PowerMeter – free energy monitoring tool that allows you to view your home's energy consumption from anywhere online. Discontinued September 16, 2011.
  • Public Service Search – Non-commercial organization service, which included Google Site Search, traffic reports and unlimited search queries. Discontinued in February 2007; replaced by Google Custom Search.
  • Real Estate – Real estate listings in Google Maps, launched in July 2009 and discontinued February 10, 2011.[27]
  • Rebang (Google China) – Google China's search trend site, similar to Google Zeitgeist. As of 2010, part of Google Labs.[28][29]
  • Related Links – automatically brought fresh, dynamic and interesting content links to any website. Webmasters could place these units on their site to provide visitors with links to useful information related to the site's content, including relevant videos, news, searches, and pages. Discontinued on April 30, 2007.
  • Google_Maps#Google_Ride_Finder – Taxi, limousine and shuttle search service, using real time position of vehicles in 14 US cities. Used the Google Maps interface and cooperated with any car service that wished to participate. Discontinued as of October 2009.
  • SearchMash – Search engine to "test innovative user interfaces." Aside from its privacy policy and terms of service, no Google branding existed on the site. Discontinued on November 24, 2008.
  • Google Mini – Reduced capacity, lower cost version of the Google Search Appliance.
  • Google SearchWiki
  • Send to Phone – Enabled a user to send links and other information from Firefox to his/her phone through text message. Discontinued as of August 28, 2008; replaced by Google Chrome to Phone. (Firefox)
  • Google Sets – Generates a list of items when users enter a few examples. For example, entering "Green, Purple, Red" emits the list "Green, Purple, Red, Blue, Black, White, Yellow, Orange, Brown." Described in its 2003 patent filing by creators Simon Tong and Jeff Dean as “an inside peek at how Google groups keywords by concept,” it was discontinued in mid-2011.[30]
  • Shared Stuff – web page sharing system, incorporating a share bookmarklet to share pages, and a page to view the most popular shared items. Pages could also be shared through third party applications, such as Delicious or Facebook. Discontinued on March 30, 2009.
  • Google Sidewiki – browser sidebar and service that allows contributing and reading helpful information alongside any web page; went online on September 23, 2009.
  • Spreadsheets – Spreadsheet management application, before it was integrated with Writely to form Google Docs & Spreadsheets. It was announced on 6 June 2006.
  • Squared – creates tables of information about a subject from unstructured data. Discontinued as of Sep' 2011.
  • TV Ads – Method to place advertising on TV networks. Launched in 2007, the product was discontinued on August 30, 2012,[31] with all remaining active campaigns ending December 16, 2012.[32]
  • University Search – Listings for search engines for university websites.
  • U.S. Government Search – Search engine and Personalized Homepage that exclusively draws from sites with a .gov TLD.
  • Video Player (Mac OS X, Windows 2000, XP): Standalone desktop application that allows viewing videos from Google Video.
  • Google Video Marketplace
  • Voice Search – automated voice system for searching the Web using the telephone. Now called Google Voice Local Search, it is currently integrated on the Google Mobile web site.
  • Web Accelerator – application that used various caching technologies to increase load speed of web pages. It supported Windows 2000 SP3+, XP, and Vista, but is no longer available for download.
  • Writely – web-based word processor created by software company Upstartle, who were acquired by Google on March 9, 2006. On October 10, 2006, Writely was merged into Google Docs & Spreadsheets.
  • Google X – Re-designed Google search homepage, using a Mac OS style interface. It appeared in Google Labs, but was removed the following day for undisclosed reasons.
  • Google Feed burner beta a beta version of Google feed burner.
  • Picnik – online photo editor. All premium features are currently available for free, though significant functionality was removed at the time of the announcement for all users. Closed on April 19, 2012.
  • Google Wave – Online communication and Collaborative real-time editor tool using richly formatted text, photos, videos, maps, and more. Development ceased on August 4, 2010. This product support is no longer available [turned off completely on April 30, 2012 by Google].[24]
  • Google Apps Standard Edition - Free, On December 6, Google Officially discontinues the Google apps standard edition, that was previously downgraded with features like maximum 10 users, and finally discontinued on December 6, 2012.
as mentioned on : and on various other Google offcial blogs

Scheduled to be discontinued

Applications that are no longer in development, and scheduled to be discontinued (inaccessible) in the future:
  • iGoogle (was Google Personalized Homepage) – Customizable homepage, which can contain Web feeds and Google Gadgets, launched in May 2005. It was renamed to iGoogle on April 30, 2007 (was used internally by Google). It will be retired on November 1, 2013[33]

See also


  1. ^ "What is Google Hotel Finder?". Google. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
  2. ^ "Google Commerce: Building a better shopping experience". Blogger. Google Commerce Blog. 31 May 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  3. ^ "Google to close five services". July 4, 2012.
  4. ^ "From lost to found"
  5. ^ "Your slice of the web"
  6. ^ "Google Trader". Google. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
  7. ^ Bookmarks Google help
  8. ^ Google Targets by Michael Arrington in TechCrunch on October 11, 2005 (retrieved on January 20, 2011)
  9. ^ "Google Business Solutions". Google Inc.. Retrieved 20 February 2010.
  10. ^ Официальный блог – Google Россия: «Вопросы и ответы» Google
  11. ^
  12. ^ Google Maps Navigation Now Works in Canada and Most of Europe
  13. ^ a b Erica Ogg, CNET. "Google unveils mobile payments, coupon service." May 26, 2011. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
  14. ^ Google opens e-book store in challenge to Amazon
  15. ^ Google Goggles
  16. ^ Google will launch iTunes music store competitor with upgrade to Android: 'Google Music' service will form part of new version of Android operating system designed specifically for tablet devices 2011-02-16
  17. ^ The Android Google Reader app is here!
  18. ^ New Android App ControlsYouTube on Your TV
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^ "Buzz will be replaced by Google+"
  22. ^
  23. ^ "Lively No More" Official Google Blog.
  24. ^ a b "More spring cleaning out of season"
  25. ^ Radio Station Automation Software | WideOrbit
  26. ^ "google notebook blog: stopping development on google notebook"
  27. ^ "Retiring Real Estate on Google Maps" Official Google Blog.
  28. ^ About Google Rebang Service
  29. ^ 有关Google中国产品的更新情况:“在中国,热榜和生活这两个产品没有受到中国用户的广泛欢迎,因此,我们决定关闭这两个产品。”
  30. ^ Rock the Vote: A Petition to Bring Back Google Sets (Search Engine Watch)
  31. ^ Mehrotra, Shishir. "An update on Google TV Ads".
  32. ^ Google Support. "TV Ads Help".
  33. ^ "Spring cleaning in summer". Retrieved 7 July 2012.

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